By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD)
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Additional info for 16th International Symposium on Theory and Practice in Transport Economics - 50 Years of Transport Research: Experience Gained and Major Challenges Ahead
The rise in inflation and interest rates which can ensue from increased public investment has a series of negative impacts which can outweigh the positive ones. On the one hand, the loss of competitiveness following the price increase has an adverse impact on the trade balance and consequently aggregate demand, while on the other, the rise in interest rates has a crowding-out effect on private investment by stimulating private consumption. However, as we shall see in the following sections, the crowding-in effect on private investment by public investment which makes itself felt in the long run is usually greater than the former.
In such an event, anticipated economic growth may be undermined. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development and implementation of a scientific tool that will allow us to systematically assess the two-way relationship between economic activity and (freight) transport. After all, (negative) developments in the freight transport sector can have repercussions for the economy as a whole. NOTES 1. Figures include freight transport by road, rail, inland waterways, pipelines and intra-EU sea transport (source: EU Energy and Transport in Figures, 2002).
Verbeke and W. ), Port Competitiveness. , Antwerp, pp. 35-66. Ortuzar, J. de D. G. Willumsen (1995), Modelling Transport (Second edition), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. Rathery, A. (1993), Traffic Flow Problems in Europe, Transport Reviews, pp. 1-23. 16th Symposium – 50 Years of Transport Research – ISBN 92-821-2333-2 - © ECMT, 2005 33 Sichelschmidt, H. (1999), The EU Programme Trans-European Networks -- A Critical Assessment, Transport Policy, pp. 169-181. A. (1996), Modelling European Freight Transport Flows, Trail, Delft.