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By Béla Tomka

A Social historical past of Twentieth-Century Europe deals a scientific evaluate on significant elements of social lifestyles, together with inhabitants, relations and families, social inequalities and mobility, the welfare nation, paintings, intake and rest, social cleavages in politics, urbanization in addition to schooling, faith and tradition. It additionally addresses significant debates and diverging interpretations of old and social study concerning the heritage of ecu societies long ago 100 years.

Organized in ten thematic chapters, this booklet takes an interdisciplinary procedure, applying the equipment and result of not just heritage, but additionally sociology, demography, economics and political technological know-how. Béla Tomka provides either the variety and the commonalities of ecu societies having a look not only to Western eu international locations, yet japanese, significant and Southern eu international locations besides. an ideal advent for all scholars of ecu background.

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XLVII. (2004), no. 1–2, 4–40 (World population); OECD Factbook 2007. Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, Paris: OECD, 2007, 13 (Czech Republic and Slovakia 2000); UNICEF, A Decade of Transiton. Regional Monitoring Report 8, Florence, UNICEF, 2001, 120 (Yugoslavia 2000). 7 million population). 1 (continued) Population 13 and East Central Europe. 8 The second half of the twentieth century saw no demographic crises similar to the World Wars and the population of the continent grew continually, albeit at differing paces by time and region.

5). 49 Despite the major decline, East Central European and, especially, South-Eastern European infant mortality was unfavourable in a European context all through the period under examination. 2. 50 Life expectancy at birth rose remarkably for both sexes in the interwar decades. This was primarily caused by the significant decline of infant mortality. The immediate aftermath of the Second World War (poor nutrition and poor public health conditions) caused mortality to rise, but soon it began to improve again.

At the end of the century, depressing demographic conditions emerged in Germany, Spain, Italy and many East Central and South-Eastern European countries, where fertility dropped to extremely low levels. g. 9 All in all, the slowest population growth between 1920 and the end of the century was produced by Austria (27%) and Hungary (28%). Modest growth can be observed in Poland, Ireland, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom as well, although the causes behind this development differ from country to country.

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