By Jacques Chrétien, Donald A. Enarson (auth.), Alimuddin Zumla BSc MB ChB MSc PhD FRCP, Margaret Johnson MD, FRCP, Robert Miller MB FRCP (eds.)
In the 15 years of the obtained immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic a lot has been learnt approximately its ordinary historical past and issues. it's transparent that the lung is a huge objective organ either for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and a wide range of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary problems. loads of info at the epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, medical good points, analysis and administration of those pulmonary problems has gathered in the past 15 years. Given the large explosion in details, it truly is now well timed to assemble this data during this 25-chapter quantity on AIDS and respiration medication. The individuals to this quantity are well-liked epidemiologists, medical professionals, microbiologists and scientists from Europe, united states and Africa. Professors Chretien and Enarson provide a masterful account of the epidemiology of lung problems of HIV. Drs Zumla, Rowland Jones and Professor McMichael supply an in depth precis of the lung immune responses to HIV. They define general lung defenses and speak about the implications of HIV an infection on them. The pulmonary radiological gains of HIV and its problems as noticeable within the united states and Europe are illustrated by way of Professors Armstrong and Dee and this can be in comparison and contrasted through Professor Tshibwabwa-Tumba who brings jointly his huge adventure of chest X-rays in AIDS sufferers from imperative Africa. Drs O'Doherty and Miller take care of the makes use of, and power purposes, of nuclear drugs in imaging of the chest in AIDS patients.
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Additional resources for AIDS and Respiratory Medicine
R. et al. (1994) Lack of evidence for the dichotomy of Thl and Th2 predominance in HIV-infected individuals. Science, 265, 248-52. H. and Chinoy-Acharya, P. (1985) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. , 131, 952-55. , Dejong, R. et al. (1990) Selective loss of T cell functions in different stages of HIV infection. Eur. J. , 20, 1039-45. , Denis, M. et al. (1988) Human immunodeficiency virus related lymphocytic alveolitis. Chest, 94, 1264-69.
T lymphocytes interact closely with B cells. Interleukin-4, which is produced by Th-2 type CD4 cells, acts on activated B lymphocytes possessing IL-4 receptor and induces their proliferation. Antibodies defend the body in several ways. They may combine with antigen and fix complement leading to antigen lysis. Antibody may neutralize microorganisms and their products; or opsonization may occur when phagocytosis is enhanced by coating of bacteria with specific antibody. IgG and IgA are present in the mucosa of the respiratory tract, alveolar epithelium and respiratory secretions (Reynolds, 1988).
No information HIV-specific CTL activity which precedes the on the T cell receptor gene usage of lung onset of opportunistic infections (Autran et lymphocytes is available to date. , 1990). ) and a potential source of virus dissemination. , 1986) from both AIDS patients and normal healthy donors are susceptible to infection with HIV-1 infection in vitro. Infection of the pulmonary macrophage can occur through phagocytosis of HIV particles or through attachment to the CD4 receptor on the macrophage surface.