Download All Clear!: Idioms in Context ( Book 2 ) by Helen Kalkstein Fragiadakis PDF

By Helen Kalkstein Fragiadakis

This profitable application stresses an inductive method of speaking successfully in English by means of spotting and generating excessive frequency American idioms.

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The metaphor ARITHMETIC IS OBJECT COLLECTION is a mapping of entities and operations from the source domain (object collection) onto the target domain (mathematical addition). ARITHMETIC IS OBJECT COLLECTION Source Domain (OBJECT COLLECTION) >>>> Target Domain (ARITHMETIC) Collections of objects of the same size The size of the collection Bigger Smaller The smallest collection Putting collections together Taking a smaller collection from a larger collection >>>> Numbers >>>> >>>> >>>> >>>> >>>> The size of the number Greater Less The unit (One) Addition >>>> Subtraction Lakoff and Nunez show how several key entailments of this metaphor, which involves the COLLECTION schema, generate various laws of arithmetic: Take the basic truths about collections of physical objects.

For example, the mechanism by which one billiard ball imparts energy to another is very different in kind from the means by which a command leads a subordinate to perform an action. Many philosophers have taken up the challenge of explaining how it is that such different phenomena may belong to the same category. Cognitive linguists have observed that causation is regularly conceptualized and talked about in metaphorical terms. Talmyýs (1988) analysis of force-dynamic understandings of causation has been very influential, and more recently, Lakoff and Johnson (1999: 224) have offered a comprehensive treatment of metaphors for causation, taking the (Constitutive) position that ÿmetaphor is central to our concept of causation.

Putnamýs Sons. 1999 The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co. 2003 Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. New York: Basic Books. Dewey, John 1958 Reprint. Experience and Nature. New York: Dover Publications. [Original edition: Chicago/London: Open Court, 1925]. Fernandez-Duque, Diego, and Mark Johnson 1999 Attention metaphors: How metaphor guide the cognitive psychology of attention. Cognitive Science 23: 83-116.

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